Animal Welfare Approved

Pig Standards

PDF Version of Pig Standards

The Animal Welfare Approved seal is a hard earned badge of difference and demonstrates the farmer’s commitment to the care of their animals, the land and the local community. Farmers in this program will be distinguished by a humane and conscientious attitude towards the animals in their care as evidenced by physical audit and development of detailed plans and records of farm practices.

Farmers in the program agree to a minimum of one visit a year from Animal Welfare Approved staff or agents, with the possibility of additional visits if deemed necessary, to confirm compliance with the standards during various seasons and to allow observation of animals in different phases of life.  Participation in the program is on an annual basis and must be renewed each year.

The premise of the Animal Welfare Approved standards is that animals must be allowed to behave naturally.  The following standards allow animals the opportunity to perform natural and instinctive behaviors essential to their health and well-being.  Provisions are made to ensure social interaction, comfort, and physical and psychological well-being.

The Animal Welfare Approved program is voluntary. The standards do not supersede national government or state legislation.

Animal Welfare Approved recommends that farmers have the Guide to Understanding Our Standards and Standards and Program Definitions documents at hand while reading these standards.

1.0 OWNERSHIP AND OPERATION

1.0.1 The individual or entity seeking Animal Welfare Approved status for their livestock must own and have management control of the animals.

1.0.2 The individual or entity seeking Animal Welfare Approved status must produce a livestock product for sale or trade that is eligible to carry the Animal Welfare Approved seal.

Note: If the primary market is selling/trading livestock as pets, animals for 4H, FFA, show animals or pack animals or marketing meat from animals slaughtered at non-compliant slaughter facilities the farm cannot be Animal Welfare Approved. See also section 14.1 if the primary market is breeding animals.

1.0.3 The Animal Welfare Approved Standards must be met for all the animals or birds of the species for which approval is sought.  Farmers must not use “split” or “dual” systems, in which some animals or birds of one species are simultaneously kept in systems that do as well as systems that do not meet Animal Welfare Approved Standards.

Note: A farm is not required to seek approval for all species on the farm simultaneously.

1.0.4 Animal Welfare Approved is a birth to slaughter program. Meat sold under the Animal Welfare Approved label or logo must come from animals that have been certified as being raised to Animal Welfare Approved standards and slaughtered using a method and at a location that has received written approval from Animal Welfare Approved.

1.0.5 The certified farm may participate in networks, co-operatives or marketing groups in order to market livestock products as Animal Welfare Approved as long as each member is audited as meeting all other requirements listed in these standards.

Note: If milk or eggs are pooled, they may only be represented for sale as AWA if all producers are certified as such. Similarly, if milk, eggs or meat from several producers are sold under a single brand, the brand may only represent the products as AWA if all producers are certified. 

1.0.6   All those working with animals must be competent to carry out the tasks required of them.

Note: This standard applies to contract and temporary workers as well as full time employees and family members.

2 BREEDS AND ORIGIN OF ANIMALS

2.0 Breeds and Origin– General Standards

2.0.1 Breeds and strains must be chosen with consideration of their ability to thrive in the prevailing climatic conditions of the farm, in pasture-based, free range, outdoor systems.

2.0.2 Cloned or genetically engineered animals are prohibited.

Note: This includes the use of cloned or genetically engineered breeding stock, the offspring of clones or genetically engineered animals and semen from cloned or genetically engineered animals.

2.0.3 Breeding replacements may come from farms that are not certified by Animal Welfare Approved but must be of a suitable breed or type for pasture based production under these standards.

2.0.4 A record of the source, date of purchase and number of breeding animals must be kept.

2.0.5 Recommended Wherever possible the farm should run a closed herd.

Note: A closed herd is one where no animals are brought onto the farm from external sources. Farms that do not have the genetic diversity or the expertise to achieve this should partner with experienced breeders to source their animals and learn more about selection criteria.

2.0.6 Rescue animals and animals sold as culls from other herds cannot be bought into the Animal Welfare Approved herd.

Note: If an experienced farmer is asked to participate in rescue activities they must contact the Animal Welfare Approved office as soon as possible and preferably before rescue animals arrive on farm to discuss their options. Rescue animals cannot be used or marketed as Animal Welfare Approved.

2.1 The Pig Breeding Herd

Note: Artificial insemination is permitted.

2.1.1 – 2.1.2 Not allocated.

2.1.3 The ability to successfully give birth independently must be taken into account in modifications over time to herd genetics.

Note: In order to score this standard the auditor will assess the number of assisted births.

2.1.4 Embryo transfer and knowingly using the semen or progeny of animals produced by embryo transfer is prohibited.

Note: The prohibition on use of embryo transfer extends to a single generation. In other words, if the sire or dam of an animal was produced by embryo transfer then that animal cannot be bought into a Animal Welfare Approved herd. New farms with existing livestock produced by embryo transfer should contact the Animal Welfare Approved office for further advice.

2.1.5 In breeding programs, attention must be paid to breed characteristics that will improve welfare such as susceptibility to lameness, susceptibility to heat stress and longevity.

2.1.6 Not allocated.

2.1.7 Pigs selected for breeding must be chosen for their good maternal qualities, hardiness and ability to meet the needs of their piglets.

2.2 Not Allocated

2.3 Animals Raised for Meat

2.3.1 Feeder or store pigs to be raised for meat must only be obtained from Animal Welfare Approved farms.

3 HEALTH MANAGEMENT

3.0 Health Planning and Preventative Management

Health and management planning increases both positive welfare and productivity.

3.0.1 Animal management must be focused on promoting health rather than treating disease.

3.0.2 Each farmer in the Animal Welfare Approved program must establish contact with a qualified expert such as a veterinarian. The qualified expert must be familiar with:

3.0.2.1 The animals on the farm.

3.0.2.2 The health requirements of the state.

3.0.2.3 Methods to maximize animal health and welfare.

3.0.3 Recommended Each farmer should schedule regular preventative care visits by a qualified expert.

Note: The Animal Welfare Approved program will provide support and assistance in achieving this standard.

3.0.4 A health plan emphasizing prevention of illness or injury must be prepared in consultation with the farm’s qualified expert advisor to promote positive health and limit the need for treatment. It must address:

3.0.4.1 Avoidance of physical, nutritional or environmental stress.

3.0.4.2 Lameness.

3.0.4.3 Climatic considerations.

3.0.4.4 Vaccinations and other methods to cope with prevailing disease challenges.

3.0.4.5 Biosecurity measures.

3.0.4.6 Nutrition.

3.0.4.7 Environmental impacts, including manure management and run-off.

3.0.4.8 Ranging and foraging area management.

3.0.4.9 Exclusion of predators and control of rats and mice.

3.0.4.10 Euthanasia.

3.0.4.11 Mastitis.

Note: See Standard 11.1.2 for recommendations on review/update of plans.

3.0.5 If there is disease or known risk of disease on farm vaccines must be used.

Note: In order to help eliminate or reduce vulnerability to disease and the need for antibiotics at therapeutic levels, Animal Welfare Approved encourages the appropriate use of vaccines on an individual or group basis for prevention of disease.

3.0.6 Action must be taken to address any causes of lameness.

3.0.7 Recommended Farmers should participate in recognized disease eradication programs.

Note: Animal Welfare Approved supports management to eliminate or reduce the risk of certain diseases and farmers are therefore encouraged to engage with programs that seek to achieve this. Recognized schemes could be national or state wide.

This standard may become required for specific diseases when a funded and functioning program is available.

3.1 Treatment

3.1.1 Any sick or injured animals on the farm must be treated immediately to minimize pain and distress. This must include veterinary treatment if required.

3.1.1.1 Homeopathic, herbal or other non-antibiotic alternative treatments are preferred.

3.1.1.2 If alternative treatments are not suitable or not effective or if a veterinarian has recommended antibiotic treatment, this must be administered.

3.1.1.3 Withholding treatment in order to preserve an animal’s eligibility for market is prohibited.

Note: The discovery of untreated injured or ill animals may be grounds for removal from the program.

3.1.2 The sub-therapeutic and/or non-therapeutic use of antibiotics, or any other medicines, to control or prevent disease or promote growth, is prohibited.

3.1.3 Growth hormones or the use of any other substances promoting weight gain are prohibited.

Note: Probiotics to promote positive health are permitted.

3.1.3.1 The use of ractopamine (Paylean) is prohibited.

3.1.4 Non-therapeutic use of substances to induce estrus (heat) is prohibited.

3.1.5 Records must be kept of the administration of veterinary medical products.

3.1.5.1 Date of purchase.

3.1.5.2 Name of product.

3.1.5.3 Quantity purchased.

3.1.5.4 Identity of the animals treated.

3.1.5.5 Reason why animals were treated.

3.1.5.6 Number of animals treated.

3.1.5.7 Date when treatment started and finished.

3.1.5.8 Withdrawal time.

3.1.6 Animals treated with an antibiotic must not be slaughtered to produce meat for the Animal Welfare Approved program before a period of time has passed that is at least twice the licensed withdrawal period of the antibiotic used.

3.1.7 Animals treated with any off-label medication must not be slaughtered to produce meat for the Animal Welfare Approved program until at least seven days after medication, or an alternative withdrawal as advised by a veterinarian.

3.1.7.1 Animals must not be treated with any medications prohibited for food animal use.

3.1.8 Any surgical procedure not covered by these standards must be carried out by a veterinarian.

3.2 Parasites

3.2.1 The primary methods of preventing parasite infestations must be ranging and foraging area management or rotation and bedding management and removal.

3.2.2 If prevention has not been effective, medicine regimens must be implemented to effectively control worms, lice, mange and any other parasites.

3.2.3 The use of organophosphates and other products with the same or a similar mode of action is prohibited.

Note: An exception to the standard above may be considered if other treatments have been shown to be ineffective. Please refer to the Animal Welfare Approved paper on organophosphate and non-organophosphate type products.

3.2.4 Fecal samples to monitor internal parasite burdens must be taken at least annually.

3.2.5 Fecal samples must be reviewed by a competent person.

3.2.6 Recommended Fecal samples should be taken during the growing season when animals are out on the ranging and foraging area.

3.3 Euthanasia

Note: When local or national authorities order the killing of a herd or if any large-scale euthanasia is about to take place to eradicate disease, the Animal Welfare Approved program must be notified as soon as possible.

3.3.1 Animals experiencing pain or suffering from which they are unlikely to recover must be promptly euthanized on the farm in a manner that renders the animal immediately insensible to pain.

Note: Please contact Animal Welfare Approved if further information on appropriate methods of euthanasia is required.

3.3.2 Euthanizing pigs in a way that causes unnecessary pain or suffering is prohibited. Prohibited methods include:

3.3.2.1 Electrocution.

3.3.2.2 Suffocation.

3.3.2.3 Exsanguination without prior unconsciousness.

3.3.2.4 Poison.

3.3.2.5 Blow to the head by blunt instrument on piglets heavier than 12lbs (5.5kg).

Note: A blow to the head by blunt instrument on piglets below 12lbs (5kg) is only acceptable if a preferred method is not readily available and the animal would suffer if euthanasia was not carried out immediately.

4 ANIMAL MANAGEMENT

4.0 General Animal Management

4.0.1 Not allocated.

4.0.2 All pigs must be thoroughly inspected at least twice per 24 hours.

Note: During the inspection the welfare of each animal must be observed.  If any animal is not in a state of well-being, it must be cared for immediately and corrective measures must be taken. During a time of increased risk to health and welfare, inspections must be increased as necessary to protect the animal’s well-being.

4.0.3 Not allocated.

4.0.4 Animals must be maintained at body condition score 2 or above on a 1-5 scale.

4.0.5 Breeding animals must not exceed body condition score 4 on a 1-5 scale.

4.1 Not Allocated

4.2 Group Management

4.2.1 All classes of animals must be sorted (for example by age, size and/or behavior) so that they remain in stable groups and the welfare of less dominant animals is protected. Mixing animals from different groups should be avoided.

4.2.2 Pregnant sows must be kept in groups.

4.2.3 Special care must be taken when mixing breeding males to socialize them to one another as safely as possible and to minimize harm to individuals.

4.2.4 Recommended Male breeding animals should be kept with the main herd or have nose to nose contact with other animals of the same species.

Note: No animal can be kept completely in isolation unless it is sick or injured (see Standard 8.3.3). If a male breeding animal has to be kept away from other animals of the same species, it must have a compatible companion of another species.

4.3  Breeding and Farrowing

4.3.1 A competent person must be available at birthing time to assist if problems are anticipated at delivery.

4.3.2 – 4.3.3 Not allocated.

4.3.4 Gilts must not farrow before the age of 10 months.

Note: Young females may reach puberty before the optimal age of first service. Males must be managed carefully to ensure females are not accidentally served too young.

4.3.5 -4.3.12 Not allocated.

4.3.13 Farrowing systems must be arranged and managed in such a way to minimize mortality.

4.3.14 Sows about to farrow must be provided with an individual arc, hut or pen for farrowing and nursing.

4.3.15 Prior to farrowing arcs, huts or pens must be amply bedded with fresh, dry bedding that the sow can manipulate.

Note: Particular care should be taken when using a heat lamp for piglets over bedding because of the risk of fire.

4.3.16 Recommended Sows that farrow within 10 days of each other should be put into groups during lactation.

4.3.17 Sows must not be placed into individual pens for farrowing for more than two weeks prior to the expected farrowing date.

4.3.18 Sows must not be confined within individual huts for more than 24 hours prior to the expected farrowing date.

4.3.19 After sows have farrowed they must not be confined within individual huts.

4.3.20 Piglets must be able to leave the arc or hut after 10 days of age.

4.3.21 If fresh farrowed sows and piglets over the age of 10 days do not have free access to a ranging and foraging area the area outside the housing, hut or pen must not be less than 48.00 sq. feet (4.5 sq. meters) per sow and litter.

4.3.22 The sow and litter must have free access to a ranging and foraging area once the piglets reach the age of 21 days.

4.4 Not Allocated

4.5 Fostering and Artificial Rearing

4.5.1 Recommended Orphan or excess young animals should be fostered onto other sows.

4.5.2 If foster mothers are used the number of piglets must be adjusted to the amount of milk the foster mother can produce and the number of foster piglets she will accept.

4.5.3 Foster mothers must not become debilitated by nursing.

4.5.4 Sick or injured animals must not be used as foster mothers.

4.5.5 Excess piglets must not be removed for fostering until they have had colostrum.

4.5.6 Pigs must be fostered onto sows within 48 hours of the foster sow giving birth.

4.5.7 Not allocated.

4.5.8 Milk replacer containing antibiotics, growth promoters and/or any animal by-products aside from milk protein is prohibited.

Note: If the welfare of a piglet could be compromised and evidence can be submitted that suitable products are not available an allowance is in operation to allow milk replacers which do not meet the standard above.

4.5.9 All nipples and other feeding equipment must be cleaned regularly.

4.5.10 If feeders are used there must never be more piglets in the pen than nipples on the feeder unless ad lib self feeding is provided.

4.5.11 Artificially reared piglets must be kept in groups.

4.6 Weaning and Separation of Piglets

4.6.1 Not allocated.

4.6.2 In some systems natural weaning of pigs may be possible. If this practice is carried out care must be taken to ensure the correct genetics are used and the welfare of sow and litter is not compromised.

4.6.3 Not allocated.

4.6.4 Recommended Newly weaned piglets should be kept with their litter mates.

4.6.4 – 4.6.5 Not allocated.

4.6.7 Feed for freshly weaned piglets must be clean and appealing.

4.6.8 Piglets must be consuming solid food by the time of weaning.

4.6.9 – 4.6.14 Not allocated.

4.6.15 Piglets must be at least six weeks of age at weaning (see 4.6.16).

4.6.16 In exceptional circumstances when the health and welfare of the piglet or the mother would otherwise be compromised, piglets may be weaned before six weeks of age. A record must be kept of each instance and the reasons for this early weaning.

4.7 Castration.

Piglets may be castrated.

4.7.1 Not allocated.

4.7.2 Immunocastration and other forms of chemical (synthetic or natural) castration or testosterone production limiting methods are prohibited.

Note: Animal Welfare Approved is reviewing the evidence relating to immunocastration in pigs. Any farm wishing to use this method of castration must first contact the Animal Welfare Approved office.  

4.7.3 – 4.7.5 Not allocated.

4.7.6 It is prohibited to castrate piglets that are more than seven days old.

Where a risk to the piglets’ health or welfare can be demonstrated this period can be extended to 14 days.

4.8 Other Physical Alterations  

4.8.1 Tail docking is prohibited.

Note: Shepherds who meet all other Animal Welfare Approved protocols but do not meet the standard on tail docking are invited to contact the Animal Welfare Approved program to discuss a timetable to come into full compliance.

4.8.2 – 4.8.13 Not allocated.

4.8.14 Clipping, grinding or filing of the needle teeth of piglets is prohibited.

4.8.15 Removal of boar’s tusks is prohibited.

Note: Trimming the tusks on boars as needed may be done with a surgical wire by a trained individual.

4.8.16 Nose ringing of pigs is prohibited.

Note: Derogation may be granted for one septum nose ring for breeding sows only if it can be demonstrated that the activity of the sow would otherwise damage soil structure, cause environmental pollution, or compromise the welfare of her litter.

4.9 Identification

4.9.1 Where identification is required it must not cause harm to the animal.

4.9.1.1 Recommended The preferred method for permanent identification is Sub-Cutaneous Radio Frequency Identification.

4.9.1.2 Recommended The preferred method of temporary identification is non-toxic paints or dyes.

4.9.1.3 Ear tagging and tattooing are permitted methods of identification.

4.9.2 Ear-marking by cutting/notching the ears of pigs must be carried out with an ear notching tool. Cutting/notching with a knife is prohibited.

5 NOT ALLOCATED

6 FOOD AND WATER

6.0 – General Food and Water Standards

6.0.1 Animals must have free access to clean, fresh water at all times.

6.0.2 Animals must have a feeding plan that will guarantee a varied, well-balanced and wholesome nutritional regime appropriate for their age.

6.0.3 A list of ingredients or sample tear tags from all feed, feed blocks and mineral blocks used on farm must be made available to the Animal Welfare Approved representative.

6.0.4 Food and water must be distributed in a way that eliminates competition.

6.0.5 Feeding meat or animal by-products is prohibited,

6.0.5.1 Not allocated.

6.0.5.2 Fish and aquatic products fed to pigs must come from sustainable sources.

Note: Feeding dairy products or by-products is permitted. By-products of aquatic species caught or farmed for human consumption and/or those that come from fisheries with a valid certificate of sustainability (e.g. from MSC) may be classed as sustainable. 

6.0.6 Recommended Farms should be Certified Non-GMO by A Greener World

Note: See www.agreenerworld.org for further information.

6.0.7 Recommended Farms that are not seeking Certified Non-GMO accreditation should avoid genetically modified organisms (GMOs) or derivatives of GMOs, including GMO feed and veterinary and health care products containing GMOs or their derivatives as well as the growing of genetically engineered crops.

6.1 Not Allocated

6.2 Food and Water for Pigs

6.2.1 All pigs must have continuous access to forage to meet behavioral needs and to satisfy hunger.

Note: Forage may consist of grass, clean hay, straw, soybean hulls or similar fiber sources and crop stubble.

6.2.2 Skip-a-day or interval feeding plans are prohibited.

7 RANGING AND FORAGING AREA ACCESS

7.0 General Ranging and Foraging Area Access Standards

The aim of good ranging and foraging area management is to satisfy the herd’s food-seeking behaviors. Animals must be able to explore the ground and their natural environment.

For management of animals in extreme weather please see sections 7.5 and 8.0.

7.0.1 Not allocated.

7.0.2 Continuous ranging and foraging area access is required for all pigs from the age of 21 days (see also 4.3.21 and 4.3.22).

7.0.3 Not allocated

7.0.4 Recommended Ranging and foraging areas should be used in rotation. Both extensive and rotational systems are permitted.

7.0.5 The amount of outdoor area must be such that the health and welfare of the animals and ranging and foraging area quality is maintained.

7.0.6 Ranging and foraging areas and the fencing that surrounds them must be designed and maintained so they do not pose a risk, or inflict injury on the animals.

Note: This includes keeping ranging and foraging areas free of old fencing, old farm machinery and any other debris that could cause injury.

7.0.7 Animals must have access to ranging and foraging areas that are well drained and clean.

7.0.8 A ranging and foraging area management plan must be in place that addresses the specific farm site. It must ensure that:

7.0.8.1 Not allocated.

7.0.8.2 Pigs must have access to growing green vegetation on the range whenever conditions allow.

7.0.8.3 The composition of the ranging and foraging areas does not create health problems for the animals.

7.0.8.4 Animals have access to fresh, clean ranging and foraging areas that has not become polluted with manure.

7.0.8.5 The location of water, shelter, and feeding areas is addressed.

Note: See Standard 11.1.2 for recommendations on review/update of plans.

7.0.9 Soil testing must be conducted at least every three years.

Note: Farmers with extensive, unfertilized range lands and/or farming land on short term lease agreements should contact AWA for guidance on appropriate soil testing intervals.

7.0.9.1 Recommended Annual soil testing should be carried out in any ranging and foraging areas where manure is spread.

7.0.9.2 Recommended Annual soil testing should be carried out in any areas where pigs have been kept.

7.0.10 Recommended Annual testing of pasture or forage nutritional content is recommended (see also 6.0.2).

7.0.11 Herbicides and pesticides may only be used when weeds or pests cannot be practically controlled by other means.

7.0.12 Herbicides and pesticides must be mixed, used and disposed of according to manufacturer’s instructions to avoid environmental contamination.

7.0.13 Animals must not be grazed or kept on land within 21 days of direct application of herbicides or pesticides.

7.0.14 The use of any manures or fertilizers for ranging and foraging areas that are bought in from off-farm must be justified by soil testing and crop nutritional need.

7.0.15 Waste from on-farm slaughter, and the remains of animals that die or are euthanized on farm must be properly composted before it is applied to ranging and foraging areas.

7.0.16 Fish fertilizers must come from sustainable sources.

7.0.17 After the application of fish fertilizer, the composted remains of animals that die or are euthanized on farm or slaughter waste to ranging and foraging areas there must be an interval of at least one month, or until all visible signs of the application have disappeared (whichever is longer), before animals use the land.

Note: Permission may be granted to allow animals to use the land prior to one month after application of composted animal remains, slaughter waste or fish fertilizer if it can be demonstrated that animals will not be exposed to any trace of the fertilizer.

7.0.18 Recommended Manures and fertilizers that can have a negative effect on soil microbial life and/or which contain heavy metals should be avoided.

7.0.19 Water sources on the farm must be managed and maintained to prevent environmental pollution.

7.0.20 Land must be managed to avoid erosion.

Note: AWA understands that even with the best management some erosion due to the activities of pasture based livestock may occur. This standard is scored against the steps farmers take to try to avoid and/or minimize erosion risks rather than the presence or absence of erosion on the farm. A complete absence of any erosion is desirable – but it is accepted that it may not always be possible.

7.0.21 Ranging and foraging areas must not be degraded by overuse and/or other management techniques.

7.0.22 Non-point pollution and other local environmental standards must be met.

7.0.23 Ranging and foraging areas on which animals have been out-wintered or that are otherwise worn out or denuded must be restored.

7.1 Not Allocated

7.2 Ranging and Foraging Area Access for Pigs

7.2.1 Ranging and foraging areas must have evidence of grown vegetative cover within the last calendar year (refer to ranging and foraging area plan 7.0.8).

7.2.2 Where vegetative cover cannot be maintained throughout the year manipulable material must be provided (refer to ranging and foraging area plan 7.0.8).

7.2.3 Recommended Denuded ranging and foraging areas should be rested and allowed to regenerate after each group of pigs.

7.2.4 When pigs are at risk of heat stress, wallows or sprinklers, in combination with natural or artificial shade, must be provided.

7.2.5 Confinement systems, in-house or field-based pens or cages that restrict the pigs’ natural behaviors, are prohibited.

7.2.6 Any ranging and foraging enclosure area provided for pigs must offer separate dunging, feeding, wallowing and foraging areas.

7.2.6.1 The minimum pen size for pigs must be 1400 sq. ft.

7.2.6.2 Each adult pig must have at least 700 sq. ft. of space.

7.2.6.3 Each market pig must have at least 56 sq. ft. of space.

7.3 – 7.4 Not Allocated

7.5 Exclusion from Ranging and Foraging Areas

For the purposes of these standards Animal Welfare Approved defines exclusion from ranging and foraging areas as the following:

  • Shutting animals into a house or barn.
  • Keeping animals outdoors, outside of the growing season, on a sacrifice pasture (or similar).
  • Keeping animals outdoors when the ranging and foraging area is covered to the point that animals cannot access vegetation (e.g. when the ranging and foraging area is snow covered).

Animals who have been properly selected for the specific climate conditions will voluntarily choose to go outdoors in all but the most extreme weather. However when exclusion is in the best interest of the animal the standards in the following section and those in section 8 must be met.

7.5.1 Animals may only be removed from pasture/ranging and foraging areas when their welfare would otherwise be negatively affected.

Note: Acceptable reasons for removal from ranging and foraging areas could include the following: extreme weather, emergencies; for example wildfires or ensuring piglets for up to four weeks post weaning have adapted to solid feed and are trained to fencing.

7.5.2 If there is planned removal of animals from ranging and foraging areas for any length of time OR in an emergency where removal from ranging and foraging areas exceeds 28 days, the farmer must put into place a written plan for animal management. It must include:

7.5.2.1 Triggers for housing such as temperature, precipitation or soil condition.

7.5.2.2 Space available to each housed animal.

7.5.2.3 Facilities available to house the animals. These must include lying areas, loafing areas, feeding areas and space to enable animals to fulfill their behavioral needs.

7.5.2.4 Triggers for animals to be returned to the ranging and foraging areas.

Note: It is not acceptable to use a particular date during the year as a trigger for either housing or return to ranging and foraging areas. Triggers should relate to the identified risk to the welfare of the animals under particular climatic or environmental scenarios.

7.6 Exclusion from Ranging and Foraging Areas for Pigs

7.6.1 When pigs are excluded from ranging and foraging areas they must be provided with sufficient material they can manipulate so that they can engage in rooting and foraging behavior.

8 HOUSING AND SHELTER

8.0 General Housing Standards

8.0.1 Not allocated

8.0.2 The thermal comfort of pigs must be protected by provision of housing or shelter with natural or mechanical temperature and humidity control as required. The needs of all ages and stages of production and local climatic extremes must be taken into account when planning housing or shelter.

Note: This standard does not supersede 4.3.15, which requires a hut, arc or pen for sows about to farrow. For other types of pig particular attention must be paid to predation and management of thermal stress if shelter without a roof is being considered.

If the temperature drops below 59F (15C) for more than 7 days in a row, natural shelter is not sufficient to protect pig thermal comfort and man made arks, huts or barns must be provided.

8.0.3 In extreme weather there must be a means to feed and water animals in a sheltered environment.

8.0.4 Shelters and housing must be positioned away from areas of run off or potential run off.

8.0.5 Shelters and housing must be well ventilated and allow fresh air to enter.

8.0.6 Shelters and housing must allow natural light to enter.

8.0.7 All housing, huts, arks and other facilities (such as feeders and water troughs) must be designed and maintained in such a way that they do not pose a risk, or inflict injury or damage to the animals.

8.0.8 Animals must not be subjected to dim and/or continuous lighting or kept in permanent darkness.

8.0.9 In the daytime, the animals must always be able to see each other, their food and water sources, as well as their surroundings clearly.

8.0.10 Inspection of animals must be possible at any time day or night.

8.0.11 Use of artificial light must not extend the maximum day-length beyond 16 hours.

8.0.12 When animals are shut into housing or shelter any artificial light must be distributed evenly.

8.0.13 Not allocated.

8.0.14 Shelters and housing for pigs must have solid floors.

Note: Floors may be natural – the surface of the ground or pasture – or artificial. An area of wire or slat under a drinker will be deemed drainage not a floor.

8.0.15 – 8.0.16 Not allocated.

8.0.17 Animals at all times must have an area available that provides dry footing so they are not forced to stand in mud or manure.

8.0.18 Accommodations must be constructed so that they can be easily and effectively cleaned.

8.0.19 Manure must be removed from housing or shelters on a regular basis.

8.0.20 – 8.0.21 Not allocated.

8.0.22 The house or shelter must be managed to eliminate ammonia, dampness and mold.

Note: The human nose can detect ammonia at levels of 5ppm upwards. If the farmer can smell ammonia action must be taken to eliminate the source.

8.0.23 Liquefaction of manure and liquefied manure handling systems are prohibited.

8.0.24 Close confinement in cages, crates or by tethering is prohibited.

8.0.25 Temporary close confinement or tying up (tethering), which may be required for vaccination, weighing, feeding marking or veterinary procedures, is permitted. This must be noted in the farm plan or recorded at the time.

8.0.26 Maintenance and housekeeping routines must be in place to minimize any potential problems from rats or mice.

8.1 Space Allowances in Housing and Shelter

Space allowances for housing and shelter have been set to allow all animals to move around freely and have sufficient space to lie down allowing for the behavioral structure of the herd.

8.1.1 The following space allowances are required in housing or shelter:

Minimum bedded lying area (for breeder pigs):

Sows 32 sq. feet 3.0 sq. meters
Boars 64 sq. feet 6.0 sq. meters
Farrowing sows 64 sq. feet 6.0 sq. meters

Minimum additional loafing area when animals are excluded from a ranging and foraging area- that need not be under cover or bedded (for breeder pigs):

Sows 32 sq. feet 3.0 sq. meters
Boars 86 sq. feet 8.0 sq. meters
Farrowing sows 48 sq. feet 3.0 sq. meters

Minimum indoor bedded lying area (for fattening pigs):

Up to 66 lbs (30 kg) and over 40 days 6.5 sq. feet 0.6 sq. meters
Up to 110 lbs (50 kg) 8.5 sq. feet 0.8 sq. meters
Up to 187 lbs (85 kg) 12.0 sq. feet 1.1 sq. meters
Up to 242 lbs (110 kg) 14.0 sq. feet 1.3 sq. meters

Minimum additional loafing area when pigs are excluded from ranging and foraging areas – that need not be under cover or bedded (for fattening pigs):

Up to 66 lbs (30 kg) and over 40 days 4.5 sq. feet 0.4 sq. meters
Up to 110 lbs (50 kg) 6.5 sq. feet 0.6 sq. meters
Up to 187 lbs (85 kg) 8.5 sq. feet 0.8 sq. meters
Up to 242 lbs (110 kg) 11.0 sq. feet 1.0 sq. meters

8.1.2 When pigs have access to ranging and foraging areas the following space allowances for huts and ark and for shade and shelter areas are required.

Sows 16 sq. feet 1.5 sq. meters
Boars 16 sq. feet 1.5 sq. meters
Farrowing sows  42 sq. feet  4.0 sq. meters

Note: Farrowing huts constructed or purchased following farm approval by Animal Welfare Approved must meet the standard above. Smaller huts that were purchased or constructed before farm approval may be acceptable.

Up to 66 lbs (30 kg) and over 40 days 3.0 sq. feet 0.27 sq. meters
Up to 110 lbs (50 kg) 4.5 sq. feet 0.4 sq. meters
Up to 187 lbs (85 kg) 7.0 sq. feet 0.65 sq. meters
Up to 242 lbs (110 kg) 8.5 sq. feet 0.8 sq. meters

 

8.2 Not Allocated

8.3 Temporary Separation and Hospital Pens

8.3.1 There must be provision of a safe place for sick or injured animals to recover, free of competition.

8.3.2 If injured animals are separated from the herd they must only be kept apart until such time they can rejoin the group without adversely affecting either the health or welfare of the individual or the herd.

8.3.3 Animals must not be kept in isolation unless briefly required for veterinary procedures or to recover from an illness or injury.

Note: Individual farrowing huts or pens where the sow still has visual and auditory contact with other pigs are acceptable.

8.3.4 The pen or enclosure for temporarily single-housed animals must meet the indoor space requirements in section 8.1.

8.3.5 Recommended Temporarily single-housed animals should have visual and auditory contact with others.

8.3.6 At minimum, pens used for the treatment of sick animals must be cleaned between each use.

8.4 Bedding

8.4.1 In housing, bedding must be available to pigs at all times.

8.4.2 – 8.4.3 Not allocated.

8.4.4 Bedding must be clean, dry, mold-free and replenished as needed.

8.4.5 Bedding must not cause discomfort or harm to the animals. Particular attention must be paid if sand is chosen as bedding.

8.4.6 Recommended Bedding with straw or cornstover is preferred.

8.4.7 Bedding from timber-based products sourced from chemically treated wood is prohibited.

8.4.8 There must be enough bedding to ensure the comfort of all pigs.

8.4.9 In cold temperatures heat must be provided as necessary to keep animals comfortable.

9 REMOVAL OF ANIMALS FROM THE APPROVED FARM

9.0 Removal of Animals from the Approved Farm – General Standards

These standards only apply to animals that the approved farmer retains ownership of when they are moved off the approved farm.

9.0.1 When Animal Welfare Approved livestock are removed from the approved farm they must be kept to Animal Welfare Approved standards until such time they leave the ownership of the approved farm or farmer.

9.0.2 There must be a separate and specific plan for maintaining animal health and welfare, transport, biosecurity and continued compliance with the Animal Welfare Approved standards while animals are removed from the approved farm.

9.1 Temporary Removal of Approved Animals from the Approved Farm

9.1.1 Animal Welfare Approved livestock will only retain their status when temporarily removed from the approved farm for the following reasons:

9.1.1.1 Male animals used for breeding.

9.1.1.2 Female animals taken to be naturally served.

9.1.1.3 Movement of animals in an emergency.

9.1.1.4 Movement of animals prepared for showing.

9.1.1.5 Movement of animals for up to 24 hours for routine management practices.

9.1.2 Not allocated.

9.1.3 Pigs taken to shows do not have to meet pasture access standards as long as they are only off the approved farm for a maximum of five days.

9.1.4 If Animal Welfare Approved breeding animals are hired or taken to farmers that are not Animal Welfare Approved the approved farm must ensure that the farm they are transferring the animals to is aware of the relevant standards for management and can meet them.

9.1.5 Showing animals must be conditioned to handling, loading and human contact before movement to a show can be permitted.

10 PREDATORS AND RODENTS

10.0 Protection from Predators

10.0.1 All animals must be protected from predators.

10.0.2 If livestock guardian dogs are used their management must meet the Animal Welfare Approved guidelines for guardian or herding canine management.

10.0.3 If other guardian animals are used they must be suitable for guardian duties.

10.0.4  Guardian animals must be chosen with consideration of their ability to thrive in the prevailing climatic conditions of the farm, in pasture-based, free range, outdoor systems.

10.0.5 In the event that exclusion is unsuccessful and predation remains an issue, live trapping may be used.

10.0.6 Live traps must be checked twice daily.

10.0.7 All other forms of traps are prohibited.

10.0.8 All snares and leghold traps are prohibited.

10.0.9 The use of poisons against predators is prohibited.

10.0.10 If live trapping is not possible or is not successful then as a last resort lethal control of specific animals may be carried out when these are causing an immediate threat to farm livestock.

10.0.11 If there is a continuous threat from predators that cannot be managed by live trapping advice must be sought from Animal Welfare Approved regarding a control program.

10.0.12 Lethal control/euthanasia of predators must result in instantaneous irreversible unconsciousness and death.

10.0.13 If a predatory animal has been euthanized to protect the animals on the farm, there must be records kept of the species in question, number of animals, and euthanasia method.

10.1 Control of Rats and Mice

10.1.1 Glue boards for the control of rats and mice are prohibited.

10.1.2 Licensed rodenticides placed such that non-target species have no access to them may be used for the control of rats or mice.

10.1.3 Lethal control/euthanasia of live trapped rodents must result in instantaneous irreversible unconsciousness and death.

11 RECORDS AND RECORD-KEEPING

This section lists the records and plans that must be maintained on farm and the sections where they can be found. All records and plans must be in a physical form that can be shown to the Animal Welfare Approved auditor. Verbal plans and records are not acceptable

Note: For new farmers entering the program a period of 12 months will be provided to put the program plans and records in place. Please contact Animal Welfare Approved if you require assistance. The Animal Welfare Approved program also provides templates for plans and records.

11.0 Written Records

11.0.1 Each farm must maintain, and provide the auditor access to, records to demonstrate compliance with Animal Welfare Approved standards.

11.0.2 Records must be kept of the purchase, sale or transfer of Animal Welfare Approved animals and products (e.g. feeder pigs, meat etc.).

11.0.3 Records must be kept of mortalities and culls including the cause for these where known.

11.1 Written Plans

Animal Welfare Approved requires the following written plans in addition to the emergency plan detailed in this section. See the relevant standard number for more information:

  • Health plan; standard 3.0.4
  • Ranging and foraging area management plan; standard 7.0.8
  • Transport plan; standard 13.0.1

11.1.1 A plan to care for or house animals in emergency situations must be prepared and be understood by all of those working on the farm.

11.1.1.1 The plan must consider the welfare of the animals during a fire. In shelters or housing with restricted access (a single door or doorways), a fire plan must be established with escape routes to the outdoors, available from the interior of the shelter, to allow all animals to be evacuated quickly.  In shelters or housing with restricted access, a method to extinguish the fire (fire extinguisher, water source) must be readily accessed. Animals must be kept from direct access to electrical wiring and heat sources as a fire prevention measure.

11.1.1.2 The plan must ensure welfare of the animals is maintained in any potential climatic extreme such as floods, snow storms, or drought.

11.1.1.3 The plan must ensure welfare of the animals is maintained during any potential disruption of services or mechanical breakdown, such as water supply cutoff and breakdown of feeding or ventilation machinery.

11.1.1.4 The plan must ensure the welfare of animals is maintained during transport to include actions to be taken in the event of an accident or vehicle breakdown.

11.1.2 Recommended All plans for animal management should be reviewed at least annually or whenever changes to farm management practices occur, whichever is most frequent.

Note: This standard applies to the health plan (standard 3.0.4); ranging and foraging area management plan (standard 7.0.8); emergency plan (standard 11.1.1) and transport plan (standard 13.0.1).

12 HANDLING

12.0 Handling Pigs

12.0.1 Efforts must be made to develop positive relationships between the farmer and animals through gentle handling.

12.0.2 All handling areas accessed by the animals must provide good traction, be well drained and kept clean and free of ice in the wintertime.

12.0.3 The use of hot prods or electric shocks is prohibited.

12.0.4 Abuse or maltreatment of animals is prohibited.

12.0.5 All animals must be moved in a calm and consistent manner. Stress from loud noises and rapid movements must be minimized.

12.0.6 All chutes and other facilities for loading must be designed to minimize stress to the animal and ensure that animals can breathe normally as they proceed through the loading process.

12.0.7 Herding dogs must be well trained.

Note: Farmers who regularly train herding dogs must contact the Animal Welfare Approved office to discuss compliance with the standard above.

12.0.8 If working dogs are used their management must meet the Animal Welfare Approved guidelines for guardian or herding canine management.

Note: Working dogs include herding dogs and livestock guardian dogs.

12.0.9 Animals must not be used for sport.

13 TRANSPORT

13.0 Transport – General Standards

This section applies to all transport of animals including to slaughter, around the farm, between farms or delivery to farm.

13.0.1 A plan must exist to ensure that welfare of the animals is maintained during transport. The plan must include:

13.0.1.1 Transport of animals to the farm.

13.0.1.2 Transport of animals around the farm.

13.0.1.3 Transport of animals off the farm to other farms, to receive veterinary attention or to slaughter.

Note: See Standard 11.1.2 for recommendations on review/update of plans

13.0.2 All animals must be healthy, ambulatory and uninjured to be transported unless they are being transported to receive veterinary treatment.

13.0.3 The person transporting the animals must ensure they are transported without delay to their destination.

13.0.4 A competent individual must take responsibility for ensuring that animals do not suffer any injury or distress at any point immediately before, during and after transport.

13.0.5 All subcontractors, handlers and truckers must adhere to Animal Welfare Approved standards.

13.0.6 If delays during transport or unloading upon arrival at destination are anticipated, loading and transport must not commence until those complications are resolved.

13.0.7 During transport, all animals must be protected from harm and thermal stress. Particular attention must be paid in temperatures below 60° F (+15.5° C) or above 80°F (+26.6° C).

13.0.8 In the event that any animals suffer injury or distress during transport they must be treated or euthanized as soon as practically possible.

13.0.9 Ventilation must be provided that allows the animals to breathe fresh air while on the transport vehicle.

13.0.10 Overcrowding during transport is prohibited. The following space allowances in transport are required:

Pigs

Weight of pig

(lbs)

Weight of pig

(kg)

Space required per pig (sq. ft) Space required per pig (sq. m)
<50 <23 1.5 0.14
51-100 23-45 2.2 0.20
101-150 45-68 2.9 0.27
151-200 68-90 3.5 0.32
201-300 90-136 4.8 0.45
301-400 136-181 6.1 0.57

Space allowance should be increased by 10% when temperatures exceed 80°F (+26.6° C)

13.0.11 The transportation vehicle must be thoroughly cleaned and dried prior to loading.

13.0.12 All animals must have continuous access to water until the point of loading.

13.1 Transport of Pigs

13.1.1 Transporting downed animals is prohibited.

13.1.2 Recommended Animals should not be transported in isolation.

13.1.3 The transport vehicle must be constructed or bedded to prevent animals slipping.

13.1.4 Injured or lame animals must not be sold at auctions and if sent off farm must go directly to slaughter.

13.1.5 Injured or lame animals who are able to travel must not be sent to slaughter in the same compartment as healthy animals.

13.1.6 Animals from different farms must be separated in transport.

13.1.7 Recommended Animals from different social groups (pens) should be separated in transport.

13.1.8 Transport of animals must not exceed eight hours.

Note: A derogation may be granted if an approved slaughter plant is not available within eight hours travel from the farm.

Transport for the introduction to the farm of breeding stock sourced for genetic improvement is exempt from this standard.

13.1.8.1 Transport of piglets within seven days of weaning must not exceed three hours.

13.1.9 Not allocated.

13.1.10 Sows must not be transported off the farm within 3 weeks of expected farrowing.

13.2 Transport of Piglets

13.2.1 – 13.2.3 Not allocated

13.2.4 Piglets must not be transported until they are at least six weeks old.

13.2.5 Piglets must be fit to travel.

14 SALE OR TRANSFER OF ANIMALS

14.0 Sale or Transfer of Pigs

14.0.1 Recommended All animals should be reared on their farm of birth.

14.0.2 Young stock, feeder or store stock must be sold direct to the farm where they will be raised.

14.0.3 Animals must not be knowingly sold into systems prohibited by these standards.

14.0.4 Routine sale to feedlots is prohibited.

14.0.5 The planned use of stockyards, auction houses and video auctions to sell animals is prohibited.

14.0.6 Animals must not be displayed or offered for sale or transfer at farmers markets, swap meets or similar venues.

Note: Delivery or exchange of animals at a farmers market or similar venue when the sale or transfer has been pre-arranged may be acceptable.

14.0.7 Animals sold live at the point of slaughter under the Animal Welfare Approved label or logo must only be sold to customers who will take them to Animal Welfare Approved slaughter plants.

14.0.8 – 14.0.11 Not allocated

14.0.12 Recommended Animal Welfare Approved recommends that even if animals or animal products are not sold under the label or logo they are sold to other Animal Welfare Approved farms and slaughtered at Animal Welfare Approved slaughter plants.

14.1 Marketing Breeding Stock

If more than 50% of all animals produced are marketed as breeding stock, the farm is primarily a breeding stock operation and must meet the standards below.

14.1.1 The Animal Welfare Approved breeding stock farm must produce animals that are suitable for pasture based production.

14.1.2 The Animal Welfare Approved breeding stock farm must have a written breeding plan that covers the following points:

14.1.2.1 The overall breeding aims.

14.1.2.2 The protocol for selecting and matching sires and dams.

14.1.2.3 The criteria used to assess whether animals are suitable to be marketed as breeding stock

14.1.3 The Animal Welfare Approved breeding stock farm must inform buyers about the Animal Welfare Approved program.

15 PROGRAM MANAGEMENT

15.0 Deviations

15.0.1 The Animal Welfare Approved program must be informed immediately of any changes on farm that could result in a deviation from the standards.

Note: The farmer must inform the Animal Welfare Approved program if they change slaughter plant from that which is listed on their certificate – even if the change is to another plant that has been reviewed and recommended by AWA.

15.0.2 Temporary deviations will be taken into consideration when unexpected circumstances that are not under the control of the farmer arise.

15.0.3 All other deviations from the Animal Welfare Approved standards can be cause for reconsideration of the farmer’s participation or removal from the Animal Welfare Approved program and use of its seal, in conjunction with that farmer’s products.

15.1 Derogations

15.1.1 If, in the opinion of the Animal Welfare Approved Standards Board, a system meets all of the principles of the program but does not pass a specific standard or standards, derogation may be granted.

15.1.2 In order for a derogation to be granted, an inspection report must be submitted stating the deviation from the published standard, the reason for this deviation, the length of time this deviation from standards will occur and the welfare outcome should the derogation be granted.

15.1.3 Derogation may be granted for on-farm trials and case studies that deviate from the standards when the proposed outcome is a benefit to animal welfare and/or farmer education.

15.2 Complaints

15.2.1 A complaints record relating to complaints about Animal Welfare Approved certified livestock or products must be maintained and be available at annual inspection. The record must list both the complaint and the action taken by the farm.

Note: Animal Welfare Approved is accredited to ISO 17065 and it is a requirement of our certification that farms within the program maintain a record in the rare event that any complaint is made. Animal Welfare Approved does not expect that farms in the program will receive complaints about their certified livestock or products, but if any are received they must be recorded along with the response from the farm. 

16 SLAUGHTER

16.0 Slaughter of pigs

16.0.1 If the farm owns or has control of an animal when it is slaughtered, the slaughter process must meet the AWA Slaughter Guidelines for Red Meat regardless of whether the meat will be marketed under the AWA label or not.

16.0.2 Recommended On-farm slaughter is recommended.

16.0.3 Recommended Controlled Atmosphere Killing (CAK), in which pigs remain in groups and their oxygen is slowly replaced by a mixture of argon and/or nitrogen and carbon dioxide is recommended for pigs.

Note: On-farm mobile slaughter and CAK are not readily available. It is the goal of the Animal Welfare Approved program to make these processes more widely available and acceptable for USDA-approved programs.

16.0.4 Slaughterhouses receiving animals in the Animal Welfare Approved program, or the process of slaughtering on-farm, must pass a review by the Animal Welfare Approved program for pre-slaughter handling, stunning, and killing.

Note: For further details of the review requirements see the Animal Welfare Approved Slaughter Guidelines for Red Meat.

16.0.5 Recommended The person delivering the animals to slaughter should stay with them to ensure that they are slaughtered according to Animal Welfare Approved guidelines.

16.0.6 Downed animals must be euthanized where they lie in a manner that renders them immediately insensible to pain.

Note: Please contact Animal Welfare Approved if further information on appropriate methods of euthanasia is required.

16.0.7 Meat from downed animals must not be sold or carry the Animal Welfare Approved seal.